Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:3677-86

Authors: Pan-In P, Wanichwecharungruang S, Hanes J, Kim AJ

Abstract
Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles – GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles – successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity.

PMID: 25125977 [PubMed – in process]